More people die from toxic gas exposure than from explosions caused by the ignition of flammable gas. (It should be noted that there is a large group of gases that are both combustible and toxic, so that even detectors of toxic gases sometimes have to carry hazardous area approval). The main reason for treating flammable and toxic gases separately is that the hazards and regulations involved and the types of sensor required are different.
With toxic substances, apart from the obvious environmental problems, the main concern is the effect on workers of exposure to even very low concentrations, which could be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed through the skin. Since adverse effects can often result from additive, long-term exposure, it is important not only to measure the concentration of gas, but also the total time of exposure. There are even some known cases of synergism, where substances can interact and produce a far worse effect when combined than the separate effect of each on its own.
Concern about concentrations of toxic substances in the workplace focus on both organic and inorganic compounds, including the effects they could have on the health and safety of employees, the possible contamination of a manufactured end-product (or equipment used in its manufacture) and also the subsequent disruption of normal working activities.
The term ‘workplace exposure limits’ or ‘occupational hazard monitoring’ is generally used to cover the area of industrial health monitoring associated with the exposure of employees to hazardous conditions of gases, dust, noise etc. In other words, the aim is to ensure that levels in the workplace are below the statutory limits.
This subject covers both area surveys (profiling of potential exposures) and personal monitoring, where instruments are worn by a worker and sampling is carried out as near to the breathing zone as possible. This ensures that the measured level of contamination is truly representative of that inhaled by the worker.
It should be emphasized that both personal monitoring and monitoring of the workplace should be considered as important parts of an overall, integrated safety plan. They are only intended to provide the necessary information about conditions as they exist in the atmosphere. This then allows the necessary action to be taken to comply with the relevant industrial regulations and safety requirements.
Whatever method is decided upon, it is important to take into account the nature of the toxicity of any of the gases involved. For instance, any instrument which measures only a time-weighted average, or an instrument which draws a sample for subsequent laboratory analysis, would not protect a worker against a short exposure to a lethal dose of a highly toxic substance. On the other hand, it may be quite normal to briefly exceed the average, Long-Term Exposure Limit (LTEL) levels in some areas of a plant, and it need not be indicated as an alarm situation. Therefore, the optimum instrument system should be capable of monitoring both short and long-term exposure levels as well as instantaneous alarm levels.